Primes

题目描述

This is an interactive problem.
For two positive integers $x, y$, we define $\pi(x, y)$ to be the number of distinct primes that divide both $x$ and $y$. For example $\pi(2, 3) = 0, \; \pi(8, 16) = 1$ and $\pi(30, 105) = 2$.
For two positive integers $a, b$, where $a \le b$, we define $S(a, b)$ to be the sum of values $\pi(x, y)$ over all pairs of integers $(x, y)$ satisfying $a \le x \lt y \le b$.
Your task is to compute the values $S(a, b)$ for many query pairs $(a, b)$. To make your task more challenging, all the queries have to be answered online.

题意概述

给定两个整数$a, b$,定义$\pi(x, y)$为所有整除$x$和$y$的质数的个数,$S(a, b)$为所有满足$a \le x \lt y \le b$的$\pi(x, y)$的和,求$S(a, b)$。有$q$组询问,强制在线。

数据范围:$1 \le q \le 5 \times 10^4, \; 1 \le a \le b \le 10^6$。

算法分析

分别考虑每个质数对答案的贡献。若在区间$[a, b]$中有$k$个数能被质数$p$整除,则$p$对答案的贡献为${k \choose 2}$。

首先筛出所有质数。但是每次询问直接枚举质数会超时。考虑对于一个整数$n$,$\lfloor {n \over i} \rfloor$只有$O(\sqrt{n})$种不同的取值。因此可以对$\lfloor {a \over i} \rfloor$和$\lfloor {b \over i} \rfloor$进行分段枚举。

代码

#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <algorithm>

int const N = 1000005;

int tp, prime[N], rec[N], vis[N], sum[N];

void init() {
    for (int i = 2; i < N; ++i) {
        if (!vis[i]) {
            prime[tp++] = i;
        }
        for (int j = 0; j < tp && i * prime[j] < N; ++j) {
            vis[i * prime[j]] = 1;
            if (i % prime[j] == 0) {
                break;
            }
        }
    }
    for (int i = 2; i < N; ++i)
        sum[i] = sum[i - 1] + !vis[i];
}

int main() {
    init();
    int q;
    scanf("%d", &q);
    for (; q--;) {
        int a, b;
        scanf("%d%d", &a, &b);
        long long ans = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < tp && prime[i] < b;) {
            int cnt = b / prime[i] - (a - 1) / prime[i];
            int nxt = 1e9;
            if (b / prime[i]) nxt = std::min(nxt, b / (b / prime[i]));
            if ((a - 1) / prime[i]) nxt = std::min(nxt, (a - 1) / ((a - 1) / prime[i]));
            ans += 1ll * cnt * (cnt - 1) / 2 * (sum[nxt] - i);
            i = sum[nxt];
        }
        printf("%lld\n", ans);
        fflush(stdout);
    }
    return 0;
}